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Q. Briefly discuss the religious beliefs of the Rajbanshi people living in North Bengal. [marks-15]


The Rajbanshi people, inhabiting North Bengal, adhere to a diverse range of religious beliefs, encompassing Hinduism, animism, and a blend of both. Hinduism holds a prominent position among the Rajbanshis, with a significant portion of the community identifying as Hindus. They worship a variety of Hindu deities, including Durga, Shiva, and Vishnu, and observe Hindu festivals such as Durga Puja and Kali Puja.

Animism, the belief in spirits residing in natural objects and phenomena, remains deeply ingrained in Rajbanshi culture. They venerate a pantheon of animist deities, including Buraburi, the goddess of fertility, and Bathou Raja, the god of forests and nature. Animist practices, such as offerings to spirits and rituals seeking favors from nature, are prevalent among the Rajbanshis.

The fusion of Hinduism and animism is evident in Rajbanshi religious practices. They often incorporate animist elements into Hindu rituals, such as offering sacrifices to nature spirits during Hindu festivals. This syncretic approach reflects the harmonious coexistence of these two belief systems within Rajbanshi society.

Christianity has also made inroads into the Rajbanshi community, particularly in recent decades. A sizeable minority of Rajbanshis identify as Christians, primarily belonging to Roman Catholic and Protestant denominations. They adhere to Christian teachings and practices while retaining some elements of their traditional Rajbanshi beliefs.

In summary, the religious beliefs of the Rajbanshi people in North Bengal exhibit a rich tapestry of Hinduism, animism, and Christianity. Their adherence to these diverse faith traditions reflects the cultural adaptability and resilience of the Rajbanshi community.

Q. Briefly discuss the expansion of railways in North Bengal. [marks-15]

Ans. The expansion of railways in North Bengal has played a pivotal role in the region’s socio-economic development, fostering connectivity, trade, and overall progress. The advent of railways transformed North Bengal from a relatively isolated area into a well-connected hub, facilitating the movement of people, goods, and ideas.

Early Developments

The introduction of railways to North Bengal can be traced back to the mid-19th century. In 1862, the Eastern Bengal Railway (EBR) laid tracks from Calcutta (now Kolkata) to Sara Ghat on the Padma River. This line marked the beginning of the railway network in North Bengal, opening up the region to trade and communication.

Expanding Network

In the subsequent decades, the railway network in North Bengal expanded rapidly. The Northern Bengal State Railway (NBSR) was established in 1874, extending the railway line from Sara Ghat to Siliguri, the gateway to the Northeastern states. The EBR and NBSR were later merged to form the Eastern Bengal Railway, which continued to expand the network, connecting major towns and districts in North Bengal.

Impact on Development

The expansion of railways in North Bengal had a profound impact on the region’s development. It facilitated the transportation of agricultural produce, manufactured goods, and natural resources, stimulating economic growth. Railways also played a crucial role in connecting tea gardens and other industries to markets, boosting the region’s economy.

Tourism and Connectivity

The introduction of railways played a significant role in promoting tourism in North Bengal. The Darjeeling Himalayan Railway, a UNESCO World Heritage Site, is a prime example of how railways have contributed to the growth of tourism in the region. The railway line, with its breathtaking scenic beauty, has become a major tourist attraction.

Ongoing Expansion

The Indian government continues to invest in the expansion of railways in North Bengal. The North Bengal-Sikkim Railway Link, a 52.7 km broad-gauge line connecting Sevoke in North Bengal to Rangpo in Sikkim, is under construction. This project is expected to further enhance connectivity and economic development in the region.

In conclusion, the expansion of railways in North Bengal has been a transformative force, shaping the region’s economy, connectivity, and overall progress. Railways continue to play a vital role in North Bengal’s development, fostering growth and opportunity for its inhabitants.

Q. Discuss the role of Maharaja Nripendra Narayan in modernizing the Cooch Behar state. [marks-15]


Maharaja Nripendra Narayan, who ruled Cooch Behar from 1863 to 1911, is widely regarded as a visionary ruler who played a pivotal role in modernizing the state. During his reign, he implemented a series of progressive reforms that transformed Cooch Behar into a modern and prosperous princely state.

Administrative Reforms

Nripendra Narayan recognized the importance of a well-structured administrative system for effective governance. He introduced a modern administrative structure, replacing the traditional feudal system with a more efficient and transparent system. He established departments for various aspects of governance, such as revenue, education, and public works.

Education and Social Reforms

Education was a priority for Nripendra Narayan. He established several educational institutions, including Victoria College (now A.B.N. Seal College) and Suniti Academy, to promote higher education among his subjects. He also introduced measures to uplift marginalized sections of society, abolishing the practice of slavery and promoting women’s education.

Economic Development

Nripendra Narayan recognized the importance of economic development for the state’s progress. He encouraged agriculture, trade, and industry, introducing modern agricultural practices and establishing new industries. He also expanded the railway network, connecting Cooch Behar to major cities in India.

Infrastructure and Public Health

Nripendra Narayan invested in infrastructure development, constructing roads, bridges, and irrigation systems. He also established hospitals and dispensaries to improve public health.

Cultural Patronage

Nripendra Narayan was a patron of arts and culture. He supported traditional art forms, such as music, dance, and drama. He also established libraries and museums to preserve and promote the state’s cultural heritage.

Legacy of Modernization

Maharaja Nripendra Narayan’s reign marked a period of significant modernization and progress for Cooch Behar. His reforms transformed the state into a well-governed, prosperous, and culturally vibrant princely state. His legacy continues to inspire the people of Cooch Behar, who remember him as a visionary ruler who laid the foundation for the state’s modern development.

Q. Evaluate the activities of Rai Saheb Thakur Panchanan Barma with special reference to his social reformation. [marks-15]

Rai Saheb Thakur Panchanan Barma (1866-1935) was a prominent social reformer and leader of the Rajbanshi community in North Bengal. He dedicated his life to uplifting his community socially, economically, and educationally. His tireless efforts earned him the title of “Father of the Rajbanshi Society.”

Social Reforms

Panchanan Barma challenged the prevailing social norms that marginalized the Rajbanshi community. He vehemently opposed the caste system and advocated for the recognition of the Rajbanshis as Kshatriyas, a higher social status. He established the Kshatriya Sabha, a caste association, to promote social upliftment and instill Brahminical values among the Rajbanshis.

Education and Women’s Empowerment

Panchanan Barma recognized education as the key to social progress. He established schools and encouraged Rajbanshi children to pursue education. He also championed women’s empowerment, advocating for their education and participation in society.

Economic Reforms

Panchanan Barma understood the importance of economic independence for social advancement. He established the Barma Company, a financial institution, to provide loans and support to Rajbanshi farmers and entrepreneurs. He also founded the Kshatriya Bank, the first rural agricultural bank in undivided India, to empower the rural populace.

Literary Contributions

Panchanan Barma was a prolific writer and poet. His literary works, such as “Dangdhari Mao” and “Rajbanshi Katha,” reflected the struggles, aspirations, and cultural identity of the Rajbanshi community. He used literature to promote social awareness and inspire his people.

Impact on Rajbanshi Society

Panchanan Barma’s contributions had a profound impact on the Rajbanshi community. His social reforms challenged the status quo and instilled a sense of pride and identity among the Rajbanshis. His emphasis on education and economic empowerment paved the way for their social and economic advancement.

Panchanan Barma’s legacy lives on as a beacon of hope and inspiration for the Rajbanshi community. His unwavering commitment to social justice, education, and economic upliftment continues to guide the community’s progress.



Q. Write a note on the growth and development of Cinchona Plantation in Darjeeling. [marks-10]


Establishment and Early Years

The cultivation of Cinchona trees in Darjeeling, West Bengal, India, dates back to the mid-19th century. In 1862, the British East India Company established the Government Cinchona Plantation at Mungpoo, Darjeeling, to produce quinine, an anti-malarial drug derived from Cinchona bark. The introduction of Cinchona cultivation was driven by the urgent need for a reliable source of quinine to combat malaria, which was a major public health concern in India and other parts of the world at that time.

The early years of Cinchona cultivation in Darjeeling were marked by experimentation and adaptation. The British planters faced challenges in selecting suitable Cinchona species, optimizing cultivation practices, and combating pests and diseases. However, through dedicated efforts and scientific research, they gradually succeeded in establishing a thriving Cinchona industry in Darjeeling.

Expansion and Golden Era

By the early 20th century, Cinchona cultivation in Darjeeling had expanded significantly, with plantations covering thousands of acres. The region became a major global producer of quinine, supplying the drug to various countries. The success of Cinchona cultivation in Darjeeling was attributed to several factors, including favorable climatic conditions, skilled labor, and advancements in cultivation techniques.

The golden era of Cinchona cultivation in Darjeeling lasted until the 1940s. During this period, the region produced a substantial quantity of quinine, contributing significantly to global malaria control efforts. The Cinchona industry also played a vital role in the economic development of Darjeeling, providing employment and generating revenue for the region.

Decline and Revival

The discovery of synthetic antimalarial drugs in the 1940s dealt a significant blow to the Cinchona industry worldwide, including Darjeeling. The demand for quinine declined sharply, leading to a reduction in Cinchona cultivation. Despite these challenges, the Directorate of Cinchona and Other Medicinal Plants (DCOMP) continued to cultivate Cinchona in Darjeeling, albeit on a smaller scale.

In recent years, there has been a renewed interest in Cinchona cultivation in Darjeeling, driven by the growing demand for natural and organic products. DCOMP has been actively promoting the cultivation of Cinchona, not only for quinine but also for the extraction of other valuable alkaloids with potential therapeutic applications.

Current Status and Future Prospects

Today, Cinchona cultivation in Darjeeling faces several challenges, including competition from synthetic drugs, limited market demand, and aging plantation infrastructure. However, there are also promising signs of revival. The growing demand for natural products and the potential for new therapeutic applications of Cinchona alkaloids offer opportunities for the industry’s resurgence.

DCOMP is working towards revitalizing the Cinchona industry in Darjeeling by adopting modern cultivation practices, improving processing technology, and exploring new market opportunities. The organization is also collaborating with research institutions to develop new products and applications for Cinchona alkaloids.

The future of Cinchona cultivation in Darjeeling hinges on its ability to adapt to changing market dynamics and capitalize on emerging opportunities. By embracing innovation, sustainability, and value-added product development, the Cinchona industry can regain its prominence and contribute to the region’s economic and environmental well-being.

Q. Write a note on the Sepoy Mutiny (1857) in North Bengal.

The Sepoy Mutiny (1857) in North Bengal

The Sepoy Mutiny, also known as the Indian Rebellion of 1857, was a widespread uprising against British rule in India. While the rebellion was primarily centered in North India, it had a significant impact in North Bengal as well. The region witnessed several outbreaks of violence, particularly in the military cantonments of Barrackpore, Dinajpur, and Rangpur.

Barrackpore: The Spark of Rebellion

In March 1857, Mangal Pandey, a sepoy in the 34th Native Infantry, attacked his British officers at the Barrackpore cantonment. This incident, which was sparked by rumors that the sepoys were being forced to use greased cartridges containing cow and pig fat, ignited the rebellion in Bengal. Mangal Pandey was later executed for his actions, but his act of defiance became a symbol of resistance against British rule.

Dinajpur and Rangpur: Uprising in the Hinterlands

The rebellion spread to other parts of North Bengal, reaching Dinajpur and Rangpur in May 1857. The sepoys in these cantonments mutinied, killing their British officers and seizing control of the armories. The rebels briefly held power in these areas, but they were eventually suppressed by British forces.

Impact on North Bengal

The Sepoy Mutiny had a profound impact on North Bengal. The rebellion led to widespread violence and destruction, and it shook the foundations of British rule in the region. The British authorities responded with harsh measures, executing rebels and confiscating properties. The rebellion also had a significant impact on the social and political landscape of North Bengal. It heightened the sense of anti-colonial sentiment and contributed to the growth of the Indian independence movement.

Significance of the Sepoy Mutiny

The Sepoy Mutiny, though ultimately unsuccessful, was a watershed moment in Indian history. It marked the first major uprising against British rule and demonstrated the growing discontent among the Indian population. The rebellion led to a reassessment of British policies in India and paved the way for the eventual transfer of power to Indian hands.

Q. Write in short the demographic pattern of North Bengal during Colonial rule.

The demographic pattern of North Bengal during Colonial rule was characterized by a growing population, increasing urbanization, and significant shifts in religious composition.

Population Growth

North Bengal experienced significant population growth during the colonial period. The population of the region nearly doubled between 1872 and 1947, driven by factors such as improved agricultural practices, reduced mortality rates, and the influx of migrants seeking opportunities in the region’s growing tea and jute industries.


Urbanization accelerated in North Bengal during the colonial era, with cities like Darjeeling, Siliguri, and Dinajpur expanding rapidly. This growth was fueled by the establishment of tea gardens, the expansion of trade and commerce, and the development of administrative centers.

Religious Composition

The religious composition of North Bengal also underwent significant changes during the colonial period. Hinduism remained the dominant religion, but there was a noticeable increase in the Muslim population, particularly in the eastern districts of the region. This was primarily due to the migration of Muslims from East Bengal (now Bangladesh).

Impact of Colonial Rule

Colonial policies and economic transformations had a profound impact on the demographic patterns of North Bengal. The introduction of the plantation system led to the displacement of indigenous communities and the exploitation of labor. The construction of railways and roads facilitated migration and urbanization, while the introduction of new agricultural practices and medical interventions influenced population growth trends.


The demographic changes witnessed in North Bengal during Colonial rule were a complex interplay of economic, social, and political factors. These changes laid the foundation for the region’s modern demographic landscape and continue to influence its socio-economic development today.



Q. Write a short note on Anglo-Koch Treaty (1773 AD).

Ans. Anglo-Koch Treaty (1773 AD):
The Anglo-Koch Treaty of 1773 was a significant agreement between the East India Company and the Koch Kingdom in North Bengal. The treaty was signed after the First Anglo-Bhutan War. According to the terms, the British recognized Koch Bihar as a sovereign state, and the Koch ruler agreed to be a tributary to the British East India Company. The treaty helped in establishing peaceful relations between the two entities, outlining their respective spheres of influence and trade agreements.

Q. Write a short note on Tobacco cultivation in Cooch Behar.

Ans. Tobacco Cultivation in Cooch Behar:
Tobacco cultivation in Cooch Behar has been a traditional agricultural practice. The fertile soils of the region provide suitable conditions for the cultivation of tobacco. The crop has economic importance for the farmers in the area, contributing to their livelihoods. The tobacco produced in Cooch Behar is often used for local consumption as well as for commercial purposes. The cultivation and trade of tobacco play a role in the agricultural economy of the region.

Q. What was the role of Women in Tebhaga Movement in North Bengal?

Ans. Role of Women in Tebhaga Movement in North Bengal:
The Tebhaga Movement, which took place in the 1940s in North Bengal, was a significant agrarian struggle for the rights of sharecroppers. Women played a crucial role in this movement. They actively participated in protests, demonstrations, and other forms of resistance. Women in the Tebhaga Movement challenged social norms, actively engaging in the struggle for agrarian rights alongside men. Their involvement highlighted the collective effort of the community in demanding a fair share of the produce.

Q. Write a short note on Jitu Santhal of Malda.

Ans. Jitu Santhal of Malda:
Jitu Santhal, a prominent figure from Malda, was a leader associated with the Santhal tribal community. His contributions are often recognized in the context of advocating for the rights and welfare of the Santhal people. Jitu Santhal played a role in raising awareness about tribal issues and worked towards the betterment of the tribal community in Malda. His efforts might encompass various aspects, including socio-economic upliftment and cultural preservation of the Santhal community.



(a) Write the full form of S.R.C.
Ans: S.R.C. stands for Student Representative Council.
(b) Who was the last independent king of Cooch Behar State?
Ans. S.R.C. stands for Student Representative Council.
(c) What do you mean by “Haluya” in Cooch Behar and Jalpaiguri?
Ans. In Cooch Behar and Jalpaiguri, “Haluya” refers to a traditional folk dance.
(d) In which year Rai Saheb Panchanan Barma was born?
Ans. Rai Saheb Panchanan Barma was born in the year 1866.
(e) In which year was the Rajbanshi Kshatriya Samiti founded?
Ans. The Rajbanshi Kshatriya Samiti was founded in the year 1931.
(f) Name two of the Bengalee tea planters in North Bengal.
Ans. Two Bengalee tea planters in North Bengal were Upendra Narayan Roy and Brojanath Sharma.
(g) Who was Helen Lepcha?
Ans. Helen Lepcha was a pioneering Lepcha social worker and political activist.
(h) When was the Treaty of Sinchula signed?
Ans. The Treaty of Sinchula was signed on 6th June 1865.
(i) Who wrote the famous book “The Rajbanshis of North Bengal”?
Ans. The famous book “The Rajbanshis of North Bengal” was written by Dr. B.C. Roy.
(j) Who was the founder of Khen Dynasty?
Ans. The founder of the Khen Dynasty was King Marma.
(k) Mention the name of the Summer Capital of Colonial Bengal.
Ans. The Summer Capital of Colonial Bengal was Darjeeling.
(l) Who was called as “Gandhi of Dooars”?
Ans. The title “Gandhi of Dooars” was given to K D Pradhan.


    • The Growth of Towns in Colonial North Bengal: A Complex Tapestry
      The growth of towns in colonial North Bengal was a multifaceted phenomenon shaped by various factors, often intertwined and sometimes contradictory. Here’s a brief overview:

      Drivers of Growth:

      Administrative Hubs: The British established administrative centers like Darjeeling and Siliguri, leading to the development of infrastructure, housing, and markets.
      Commercial Centers: Towns like Cooch Behar and Malda became trading centers for agricultural produce, fueled by the expansion of commercial agriculture.
      Plantation Economy: The rise of tea and jute plantations created demand for labor, leading to the growth of towns like Jalpaiguri and Dinhata.
      Hill Stations: Darjeeling and Kalimpong emerged as popular hill stations, attracting tourists and boosting local economies.
      Transportation Infrastructure: The construction of railways and roads connected towns, facilitating trade and movement.
      Impact of Colonialism:

      Uneven Development: While some towns flourished, others remained stagnant due to colonial policies favoring specific sectors and regions.
      Exploitation and Displacement: The growth of towns often came at the cost of local communities, who faced land dispossession and exploitation as cheap labor.
      Social and Cultural Changes: Towns became melting pots of diverse communities, leading to new social interactions and cultural exchanges.
      Case Studies:

      Darjeeling: A hill station initially developed as a sanatorium for British officials, later becoming a major tourist destination.
      Siliguri: A strategic gateway to the Northeast, transformed into a major trade and transportation hub.
      Jalpaiguri: A center for the tea industry, witnessing significant population growth and infrastructure development.


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