[CH -12] 4Year Degree Course History Notes | MID-EIGHTEENTH CENTURY TO 1871 EUROPE | CORE-12

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4Year Degree Course History – UG History Suggestion and Answer

Q. Do you think that the fiscal causes lay at the root of the French Revolution? (Marks-15)

Ans: Yes, the fiscal causes played a significant role in sparking the French Revolution. France’s growing national debt, coupled with an inefficient tax system and a privileged aristocracy that enjoyed exemptions, placed a heavy burden on the common people, particularly the bourgeoisie and the peasantry. The government’s attempts to address the financial crisis through increased taxation and spending cuts further exacerbated the situation, leading to widespread discontent and resentment.

Several factors contributed to France’s precarious financial situation:

  • Expensive Wars: France’s involvement in costly wars, such as the Seven Years’ War and the American War of Independence, drained the national treasury. These wars necessitated substantial borrowing, which accumulated into a massive debt.
  • Inefficient Tax System: France’s tax system was outdated and unfair, heavily burdening the lower classes while exempting the privileged aristocracy and clergy. This inequity fueled resentment among the common people.
  • Lavish Royal Spending: The French monarchy’s extravagant lifestyle and spending habits contributed significantly to the financial crisis. King Louis XVI and his court were known for their lavish parties, expensive luxuries, and costly patronage, further exacerbating the debt burden.
  • Economic Hardship: The late 18th century saw a decline in agricultural production, leading to food shortages and rising prices. This economic hardship disproportionately affected the peasantry, who already bore the brunt of taxation.
  • Rising Expectations: The Enlightenment ideals of equality and liberty spread among the French population, particularly the bourgeoisie. These ideals clashed with the entrenched privileges of the aristocracy, creating a sense of injustice and fueling revolutionary fervor.

The fiscal crisis came to a head in 1789 when King Louis XVI, facing bankruptcy, convened the Estates-General, a legislative body representing the three estates of French society: the clergy, the nobility, and the commoners. The Third Estate, representing the vast majority of the population, demanded equal representation and a say in taxation. When their demands were ignored, the Third Estate broke away and formed the National Assembly, marking the beginning of the French Revolution.

In conclusion, the fiscal causes of the French Revolution were multifaceted, rooted in a combination of excessive debt, an unjust tax system, extravagant royal spending, economic hardship, and rising expectations among the population. These factors created a volatile situation that ultimately erupted into revolution.


Q: How did fiscal causes contribute to the French Revolution?
Fiscal causes, including taxation and financial mismanagement, heightened economic disparities, leading to social unrest and ultimately fueling the French Revolution.
Q: Were fiscal issues unique to France, or were they prevalent in other European nations?
While France faced distinct fiscal challenges, other European nations also grappled with economic complexities, contributing to the broader context of revolutionary movements.
Q: What were the key turning points in the French Revolution?
Key turning points include events like the Storming of the Bastille and the Reign of Terror, highlighting the burstiness inherent in revolutionary movements.
Q: How did revolutionary ideas influence political thought during this period?
Revolutionary ideas challenged existing political structures, paving the way for new ideologies that had a lasting impact on political thought in Europe.
Q: What lessons can contemporary societies draw from the fiscal causes of the French Revolution?
Contemporary societies can learn the importance of addressing economic disparities and ensuring fiscal responsibility to prevent social upheaval.

Q. Describe the reign of Terror in France. Was it a necessity? (Marks-15)


The Reign of Terror:

The Reign of Terror was a period of intense violence and repression during the French Revolution, lasting from September 1793 to July 1794. It was characterized by mass executions, arbitrary arrests, and widespread fear. The Committee of Public Safety, led by Maximilien Robespierre, was responsible for overseeing the Terror, which aimed to eliminate all perceived threats to the Revolution.

Causes of the Reign of Terror

Several factors contributed to the rise of the Reign of Terror:

  • The threat of counterrevolution: France was facing both internal and external threats from those who opposed the Revolution. The Vendée region, in particular, was the site of a fierce counterrevolutionary uprising.
  • The radicalization of the Revolution: As the Revolution progressed, it became increasingly radical. The Jacobins, a radical political group, came to power in 1793 and sought to establish a utopian society based on liberty, equality, and fraternity.
  • The use of fear as a weapon: Robespierre and other Jacobins believed that fear was necessary to maintain control and protect the Revolution from its enemies. They used propaganda and public executions to instill fear in the population.

Impact of the Reign of Terror

The Reign of Terror had a profound and lasting impact on France:

  • Thousands of people were executed: Estimates vary, but it is believed that between 15,000 and 40,000 people were executed during the Reign of Terror.
  • Society was divided: The Terror created a climate of mistrust and suspicion, as people were afraid to speak out for fear of being arrested or executed.
  • The Revolution’s image was tarnished: The violence of the Reign of Terror stained the reputation of the French Revolution and made it difficult to achieve its ideals of liberty and equality.

Was the Reign of Terror a Necessity?

The question of whether the Reign of Terror was a necessity remains a matter of debate among historians. Some argue that it was necessary to protect the Revolution from its enemies and to preserve the gains that had been made. Others argue that it was an act of barbarity that undermined the Revolution’s ideals.


The Reign of Terror was a dark chapter in French history. It was a period of violence and repression that had a profound impact on the country. The question of whether it was a necessity remains a matter of debate, but it is clear that the Terror left a lasting legacy of fear and division.


  1. Was the Reign of Terror inevitable during the French Revolution?
    • The Reign of Terror was a product of specific historical circumstances, but its inevitability is a subject of debate among historians.
  2. How did the Reign of Terror affect the daily lives of ordinary citizens?
    • The Reign of Terror brought about significant disruptions in the daily lives of ordinary citizens, impacting social, economic, and political spheres.
  3. Were there alternative solutions to the issues that led to the Reign of Terror?
    • Historians explore various alternative solutions that could have been pursued to address the challenges faced by revolutionary leaders.
  4. Did other countries react to the events of the Reign of Terror?
    • The events of the Reign of Terror had reverberations beyond France, sparking reactions and responses from other countries.
  5. How did the Reign of Terror shape the subsequent course of French history?
    • The Reign of Terror had a profound and lasting impact on French history, influencing the trajectory of political and social developments.

Q. Define Metternich System. Why did it ultimately fail? [Marks-10+5]


Metternich System

The Metternich System was a conservative political order established in Europe following the Napoleonic Wars. It was named after Klemens von Metternich, the Austrian foreign minister who played a leading role in its implementation. The system was designed to prevent the recurrence of revolution and preserve the balance of power in Europe.

Key Principles of the Metternich System:

  • Legitimacy: The system was based on the principle of legitimacy, which meant that only those rulers who had inherited their positions from previous monarchs were considered legitimate. This principle was intended to undermine the legitimacy of revolutionary governments and prevent the spread of republicanism.
  • Balance of Power: The Metternich System aimed to maintain a balance of power among the major European powers, preventing any one state from becoming too powerful and threatening the peace of Europe.
  • Intervention: Metternich believed that it was necessary to intervene in the affairs of other states to prevent the spread of revolution. This policy was used to suppress liberal revolutions in several European countries during the 1820s and 1830s.
  • Repression: The Metternich System relied on repression to maintain order.

Reasons for the Failure of the Metternich System:

  • Rising Nationalism: The Metternich System’s suppression of nationalist movements created resentment and instability in many parts of Europe. Nationalist groups sought to unify their people into independent nations, and they were increasingly willing to challenge the established order.
  • Economic and Social Change: The Industrial Revolution brought about rapid economic and social change, which undermined the traditional social order that the Metternich System was designed to preserve. The growth of the working class and the middle class created new demands for political representation, which the system was unable to accommodate.
  • Revolutions of 1848: The revolutions of 1848 swept across Europe, toppling governments and challenging the Metternich System. Although these revolutions were ultimately suppressed, they demonstrated the fragility of the system and the growing opposition to its principles.
  • Unification of Germany and Italy: The unification of Germany and Italy in the 1860s and 1870s dealt a final blow to the Metternich System. These unifications were achieved through nationalist revolutions and wars, and they represented a clear rejection of the system’s emphasis on legitimacy and balance of power.

The Metternich System ultimately failed because it was unable to adapt to the changing political, social, and economic forces of the 19th century. Its suppression of nationalism, its resistance to reform, and its reliance on repression created tensions that ultimately led to its downfall.


Q: Was the Metternich System solely responsible for maintaining stability in Europe during its reign?

A: While the Metternich System played a significant role, other factors such as economic developments and social stability also contributed to the overall stability.

Q: How did the rise of nationalism impact the Metternich System?

A: The rise of nationalism posed a direct challenge to the conservative ideals of the Metternich System, leading to its eventual decline.

Q: What were the major criticisms against Klemens von Metternich’s approach to governance?

A: Critics argued that Metternich’s staunch conservatism stifled progress and hindered the natural evolution of societies.

Q: Can the downfall of the Metternich System be attributed solely to internal factors, or were external forces at play?

A: The downfall was a result of a combination of internal challenges, such as shifting ideologies, and external factors like economic transformations.

Q: How did the events of 1848 contribute to the unraveling of the Metternich System?

A: The 1848 Revolutions created widespread unrest and dissatisfaction, serving as catalysts for the decline of the Metternich System.

Q. Explain whether the unification of Germany under the leadership of Bismarck was German unification or Prussian Expansion. (Marks-15)

Ans. The unification of Germany under the leadership of Otto von Bismarck was a complex and multifaceted process that can be characterized as both German unification and Prussian expansion. While Bismarck’s ultimate goal was to create a unified German nation-state, he also sought to enhance Prussia’s power and influence within Europe.

Arguments in Favor of German Unification:

  • Shared Cultural and Linguistic Identity: The German states shared a common language, history, and cultural heritage, which provided a basis for national unity. Many Germans desired to unite into a single nation that would reflect their shared identity.
  • Economic Benefits: Economic unification would remove barriers to trade and promote economic growth within Germany. A unified German market would create opportunities for businesses and workers across the country.
  • Political Strength: A unified Germany would be a more powerful and influential player on the world stage. It could protect its interests and promote its values more effectively than the individual German states could on their own.

Arguments in Favor of Prussian Expansion:

  • Prussia’s Military Strength: Prussia was the most powerful state in Germany, and its military prowess was a key factor in its unification efforts. Bismarck used Prussia’s military strength to intimidate and coerce other German states into joining the unification process.
  • Prussia’s Economic Strength: Prussia was also the most economically developed state in Germany, and its industrial base provided a foundation for the unified German economy. Bismarck’s policies helped to integrate Prussia’s economy with those of the other German states.
  • Prussia’s Political Dominance: After unification, Prussia became the dominant force within the German Empire. Bismarck carefully crafted the constitution of the empire to ensure that Prussia held the reins of power.

In conclusion, the unification of Germany under Bismarck was a combination of German unification and Prussian expansion. While Bismarck was motivated by a genuine desire to create a unified German nation-state, he also pursued policies that benefited Prussia and solidified its dominance within Germany. The resulting German Empire was a powerful and influential state, but it was also one that was heavily influenced by Prussian interests and values.

It is important to note that these two perspectives are not mutually exclusive. Bismarck’s policies were both beneficial for Germany as a whole and advantageous for Prussia. The unification of Germany strengthened the country economically, militarily, and politically, while also expanding Prussia’s power and influence.

Bismarck’s approach to unification was pragmatic and realistic. He recognized that Prussia was the most powerful state in Germany and that it would play a central role in any unified German nation-state. He also understood that the other German states would be reluctant to give up their independence, so he sought to create a system in which Prussia would be the dominant power but in which the other states would also have some degree of autonomy.

The result of Bismarck’s policies was a unified German state that was dominated by Prussia. While this arrangement was not without its critics, it was successful in achieving its goal of creating a powerful and influential German nation-state.

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4Year Degree Course History – UG History Suggestion and Answer



Q. Do you think that a more responsible monarchy could have prevented the French Revolution? (Marks-10)

Ans. Whether a more responsible monarchy could have prevented the French Revolution is a complex question with no easy answer. There are many factors that contributed to the revolution, and it is difficult to say with certainty whether a more responsible monarchy could have prevented it from happening.

However, it is worth considering some of the ways in which a more responsible monarchy might have been able to avert the revolution.

  • Addressing economic inequality: One of the major causes of the French Revolution was the economic inequality that existed in France. The vast majority of the population was poor and struggling to make ends meet, while the nobility and clergy lived in luxury. A more responsible monarchy could have taken steps to address this inequality, such as taxing the nobility and clergy more heavily and redistributing some of their wealth to the poor.
  • Promoting political reform: Another major cause of the French Revolution was the lack of political representation for the vast majority of the population. The Estates-General, the French legislature, was dominated by the nobility and clergy, and the common people had little said in how they were governed. A more responsible monarchy could have introduced reforms to give the common people more representation in government.
  • Reducing government corruption: The French monarchy was also rife with corruption, which further eroded public trust in the government. A more responsible monarchy could have taken steps to reduce corruption, such as cracking down on bribery and other forms of misconduct.

Of course, it is impossible to say for sure whether any of these measures would have been enough to prevent the French Revolution. The revolution was a complex event with many causes, and it is likely that even a more responsible monarchy would not have been able to prevent it entirely. However, it is possible that a more responsible monarchy could have delayed the revolution or made it less violent.

Ultimately, the question of whether a more responsible monarchy could have prevented the French Revolution is a matter of speculation. There is no definitive answer, and historians will continue to debate this issue for many years to come.


Q: Were there any monarchies that successfully implemented reforms?
Yes, certain European monarchies implemented reforms successfully, leading to positive social and economic changes.
Q: Did the French monarchy attempt any reforms before the revolution?
Some attempts were made, but they were often insufficient, facing resistance from existing power structures.
Q: How did Enlightenment ideas contribute to the French Revolution?
Enlightenment ideas fuelled aspirations for equality and democracy, inspiring revolutionary sentiments.
Q: Were there external factors contributing to the French Revolution?
Yes, external factors, including wars and economic pressures, played a role in the lead-up to the revolution.
Q: What lessons can we learn from the French Revolution today?
The importance of responsive and responsible governance to prevent social upheaval remains relevant in modern times.

Q. Explain the historical significance of the “Declaration of Rights of Man and Citizen”. (Marks-10)

Ans. The Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen, adopted on August 26, 1789, by the National Assembly of France, was a foundational document of the French Revolution and played a pivotal role in shaping the course of human rights and democracy worldwide. It enshrined fundamental principles of individual liberty, equality, and justice, marking a significant step towards the recognition and protection of human dignity.

Historical Significance:

  • Establishment of Universal Human Rights: The Declaration asserted that all individuals, regardless of their social status or background, possess inherent and inalienable rights. This proclamation challenged the traditional notions of privilege and hierarchy, laying the groundwork for the concept of universal human rights.
  • Inspiration for Democratic Movements: The Declaration’s emphasis on popular sovereignty and the consent of the governed provided a powerful ideological framework for democratic revolutions and movements across the globe. It inspired revolutions in Latin America, Europe, and beyond, promoting the ideals of self-governance and representation.
  • Impact on Legal and Political Systems: The principles enshrined in the Declaration have had a profound impact on the development of legal and political systems worldwide. Many constitutions and international treaties have drawn upon its principles, incorporating protections for individual rights and liberties.
  • Advancement of Human Rights Discourse: The Declaration’s articulation of fundamental human rights has shaped the ongoing discourse on human rights. It has served as a benchmark for assessing the progress of societies towards achieving universal human rights standards.
  • Symbol of Freedom and Equality: The Declaration has become a powerful symbol of freedom and equality, inspiring generations of activists and advocates fighting for human rights and social justice. Its principles continue to resonate in contemporary struggles for democracy, liberty, and the protection of human dignity.

In conclusion, the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen stands as a landmark document in the history of human rights and democracy. Its articulation of universal rights and its embodiment of the Enlightenment ideals of liberty, equality, and justice have had a profound and enduring impact on the world. Its legacy continues to inspire and guide the pursuit of a more just and equitable society for all.

Frequently Asked Questions

Q. Is the Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen still relevant today?

A. Despite being over two centuries old, the principles outlined in the declaration remain relevant, influencing contemporary human rights discussions.

Q. Were there any immediate consequences or changes after the declaration was adopted?

A. The adoption of the declaration marked a pivotal moment in the French Revolution, contributing to significant changes in governance and societal norms.

Q. How did other nations react to the Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen?

A. The declaration’s ideals resonated globally, inspiring movements for freedom and human rights in various parts of the world.

Q. What challenges did the drafters face during the creation of the declaration?

A. The drafters encountered political turmoil, differing philosophical perspectives, and the need to balance individual rights with the demands of a nation in flux.

Q. How has the declaration influenced modern legal systems?

A. The principles of the declaration have been incorporated into numerous legal frameworks, shaping the foundation of modern human rights law.

Q. Discuss the causes and effects of the Revolution of 1848 in France. (Marks-10)

Ans. The Revolution of 1848 in France was a pivotal event that shook the foundations of the monarchy and ushered in a period of political and social upheaval. It was a culmination of long-simmering discontent and unfulfilled aspirations that erupted into a wave of protests, demonstrations, and demands for change.

Causes of the Revolution of 1848:

  • Economic Hardship: The French economy was plagued by economic stagnation, unemployment, and rising food prices. The working class, particularly in urban areas, suffered from severe hardship, fueling resentment towards the government’s inability to address these issues.
  • Political Repression: The monarchy under King Louis-Philippe was increasingly seen as authoritarian and unresponsive to the needs of the people. Censorship of the press, restrictions on political participation, and the dominance of the wealthy elite created a sense of political alienation among the populace.
  • Demands for Reform: The middle class, or the bourgeoisie, was growing in size and influence but lacked political representation. They sought reforms such as an expansion of voting rights, a constitutional monarchy, and greater freedom of expression.
  • Nationalism and Republican Ideals: The rise of nationalism and republican ideals inspired a desire for a more democratic and representative government. Many French citizens were drawn to the ideals of the American and French revolutions, seeking a society based on popular sovereignty and individual rights.
  • Impact of Revolutions Abroad: The revolutions of 1848 sweeping across Europe, particularly in neighboring Germany and Austria, further ignited the revolutionary spirit in France, demonstrating the possibility of overthrowing oppressive regimes.

Effects of the Revolution of 1848:

  • Overthrow of the Monarchy: The revolution resulted in the abdication of King Louis-Philippe and the establishment of the Second Republic. This marked a significant shift from a constitutional monarchy to a republic, albeit one that would face further challenges and instability.
  • Expansion of Voting Rights: In response to demands for greater political representation, the Second Republic introduced universal male suffrage. This expansion of voting rights empowered the working class and middle class, giving them a greater voice in the political process.
  • Social and Economic Reforms: The revolution also led to a series of social and economic reforms, including the establishment of national workshops to provide employment for the working class. These reforms aimed to address the underlying grievances that fueled the revolution.
  • Rise of Socialism: The revolutionary fervor gave rise to socialist ideas, with Louis Blanc’s concept of “social workshops” gaining prominence. This marked the emergence of socialist thought as a significant force in French politics.
  • Legacy of Struggle: The Revolution of 1848, while ultimately unsuccessful in establishing a stable and lasting republic, left an enduring legacy of struggle for democracy, social justice, and the rights of the working class. It served as a catalyst for future social and political movements in France and beyond.

Frequently Asked Questions

Q. What were the main causes of the Revolution of 1848 in France?
The revolution was primarily driven by economic hardships, social inequality, and political repression.
Q. How did the February Revolution contribute to the establishment of the Second Republic?
The February Revolution led to mass protests, forcing King Louis-Philippe to abdicate and paving the way for the establishment of the Second Republic.
Q. What were the socio-political changes brought about by the revolution?
The revolution resulted in significant changes, including the extension of voting rights and the drafting of a new constitution.
Q. What challenges did the Second Republic face after its establishment?
Internal conflicts, external pressures, and fragmentation among revolutionary forces posed challenges to the stability of the new republic.
Q. How did the Revolution of 1848 in France influence subsequent revolutionary movements in Europe?
The revolution’s impact extended beyond France, inspiring and influencing similar movements across Europe.

Q. How did Cavour turn the Italian problem from a domestic to an international one? (Marks-10)

Ans. Camillo Benso, Count of Cavour, played a pivotal role in transforming the Italian unification movement from a domestic issue into an international concern. His astute diplomacy and strategic alliances brought the plight of Italy to the forefront of European politics, paving the way for the country’s eventual unification in 1861.

Cavour’s first step in internationalizing the Italian question was to modernize the Kingdom of Sardinia-Piedmont, the state that would serve as the nucleus of a unified Italy. He implemented a series of reforms, including economic modernization, administrative reorganization, and military strengthening, which enhanced Sardinia-Piedmont’s standing among European powers.

Next, Cavour sought to exploit the simmering tensions between Austria, the dominant power in the Italian Peninsula, and France. He skillfully maneuvered to secure French support for Sardinia-Piedmont in a potential conflict with Austria. This alliance was crucial as it provided Sardinia-Piedmont with the necessary military backing to challenge Austria’s dominance.

In 1859, Austria, provoked by Sardinia-Piedmont’s actions in the northern Italian region of Lombardy, issued an ultimatum demanding the withdrawal of Sardinian troops. Cavour, eager for a wider conflict, rejected the ultimatum, triggering the Second Italian War of Independence. France, as promised, intervened on Sardinia-Piedmont’s side, leading to Austria’s defeat.

The war’s outcome significantly altered the political landscape of Italy. Austria’s power in the peninsula was severely diminished, and the unification movement gained momentum. Cavour deftly capitalized on this momentum, fostering alliances with various Italian states and encouraging popular uprisings against Austrian rule.

By 1860, much of northern and central Italy had been unified under Sardinia-Piedmont’s leadership. Cavour then turned his attention to the southern kingdoms of Naples and Sicily, which were under Bourbon rule. Garibaldi, a charismatic revolutionary leader, organized an expedition to conquer these kingdoms, and Cavour, realizing the opportunity to expand Sardinia-Piedmont’s control, covertly supported Garibaldi’s efforts.

In 1861, Garibaldi successfully unified the southern kingdoms with Sardinia-Piedmont, proclaiming Victor Emmanuel II, the King of Sardinia-Piedmont, as the King of Italy. With this unification, Cavour’s efforts to internationalize the Italian question and bring about a unified Italy culminated in a momentous achievement.

Cavour’s skillful diplomacy, strategic alliances, and astute maneuvering were instrumental in transforming the Italian unification movement from a domestic issue into an international one. He brought the plight of Italy to the attention of European powers, secured their support, and exploited the political landscape to achieve the unification of Italy in 1861. His legacy stands as a testament to his exceptional political acumen and unwavering commitment to a unified Italy.

Frequently Asked Questions

Q. Was Cavour the sole architect of Italy’s internationalization?
A. Cavour played a central role, but other factors and individuals also contributed to Italy’s growing international presence during the Risorgimento.
Q. Did Cavour anticipate the long-term consequences of his diplomatic strategies?
A. While Cavour was visionary, some of the international implications of his actions may not have been entirely foreseeable.
Q. How did the Crimean War impact Italy’s standing on the global stage?
Italy’s involvement in the Crimean War heightened international awareness of the Italian question, laying the groundwork for future diplomatic maneuvers.
Q. What was the significance of the Plombières Agreement in the internationalization process?
The Plombières Agreement marked a crucial step, solidifying international support for Italy’s unification and involving major European powers in the Italian cause.
Q. Is Cavour’s diplomatic legacy a subject of controversy among historians?

A. Yes, historians hold diverse perspectives on the effectiveness and consequences of Cavour’s diplomatic strategies in internationalizing the Italian problem.

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4Year Degree Course History – UG History Suggestion and Answer



Q. Who were Sans-Culottes? (Marks-5)

Ans. The Sans-culottes (French pronunciation: [sɑ̃kylɔt]; literally “without breeches”) were the working-class people of Paris during the French Revolution. They were known for their distinctive clothing, which included long trousers, carmagnole jackets, and red caps. The Sans-Culottes were a radical and militant group who played a major role in the Revolution.

The term “Sans-culottes” was originally used pejoratively by the aristocracy, who wore knee-breeches (culottes) as a symbol of their social status. The Sans-culottes adopted the term as a badge of honor, and it became a symbol of their opposition to the aristocracy and the Ancien Régime.

The Sans-culottes were a diverse group, but they were united by their shared experience of poverty and oppression. They were also united by their belief in direct democracy and their desire for a more just and equitable society.

The Sans-culottes played a major role in the French Revolution. They were involved in many of the key events of the Revolution, including the Storming of the Bastille, the Women’s March on Versailles, and the overthrow of the monarchy.

The Sans-culottes were also a source of great fear for the ruling class. They were often seen as a threat to order and stability, and they were the target of many repressive measures. However, the Sans-culottes were also a force for change, and they helped to bring about the end of the Ancien Régime and the establishment of a new republican government.

Q. What was the Tennis Court Oath? (Marks-5)

Ans. The Tennis Court Oath was a promise made by representatives of the Third Estate of the Estates-General on June 20, 1789. The Third Estate was made up of representatives of the common people of France, and they had been locked out of the building where the Estates-General was meeting. The Third Estate then swore an oath not to disband until they had written a new constitution for France.

The Tennis Court Oath was a significant event in the French Revolution. It marked the beginning of the end of the absolute monarchy in France and the rise of a new, more representative form of government. The oath also demonstrated the unity and determination of the Third Estate, and it showed that they were not willing to be ignored or silenced.

The Tennis Court Oath was made in the Jeu de Paume, or tennis court, in Versailles. The court was a large indoor space that was used for playing tennis and other games. It was located near the Estates-General meeting place, and it was a convenient place for the Third Estate to gather.

The oath was written by Emmanuel Sieyès, a French politician and writer. Sieyès was a leading figure in the French Revolution, and he was known for his belief in popular sovereignty. The oath was signed by 576 deputies of the Third Estate, and it was a powerful statement of their commitment to creating a new constitution for France.

The Tennis Court Oath was a turning point in the French Revolution. It showed that the Third Estate was not going to be satisfied with the status quo, and it set the stage for the events that would follow.

Q. Who was Rousseau? What were his chief ideas? (Marks-5)

Ans. Jean-Jacques Rousseau (1712-1778) was a Swiss-born French philosopher, writer, and composer. His political philosophy influenced the progress of the Age of Enlightenment throughout Europe, as well as aspects of the French Revolution and the development of modern political, economic, and educational thought.

Rousseau’s chief ideas include:

  • The natural state of mankind is one of goodness and equality. Rousseau believed that humans are naturally good and that they are corrupted by society. He argued that social institutions such as private property, social hierarchy, and government lead to inequality and conflict.
  • The general will is the sovereign authority in a society. Rousseau believed that the people, not any individual or group, should be the ultimate source of power in a government. He argued that the general will is the expression of the collective interests of the people, and that it is always just and legitimate.
  • Education should be child-centered and focused on developing the individual’s natural capacities. Rousseau believed that education should not be about rote memorization or indoctrination, but rather about helping children to develop their own unique talents and abilities. He argued that children should be educated in a natural and free environment, and that they should be allowed to explore their own interests and curiosity.

Rousseau’s ideas were highly influential in the development of modern political thought. His belief in popular sovereignty and the general will helped to lay the foundation for democratic governments. His ideas about education also had a profound impact on the development of modern educational theory and practice.

Here are some of Rousseau’s most famous works:

  • A Discourse on the Sciences and Arts (1750)
  • Discourse on Inequality (1755)
  • The Social Contract (1762)
  • Emile, or On Education (1762)

Rousseau’s legacy is complex and controversial. He has been praised for his contributions to political thought, education, and literature. However, he has also been criticized for his utopianism, his unrealistic view of human nature, and his support for totalitarianism. Despite these criticisms, Rousseau’s ideas continue to be debated and discussed today.

Q. What was the aim of Vienna Congress? (Marks-5)

Ans: The Congress of Vienna was a series of international diplomatic meetings that took place in Vienna, Austria, from September 1814 to June 1815. The aim of the Congress was to restore a balance of power in Europe and to prevent another war after the Napoleonic Wars.

The Congress was attended by representatives of all of the major European powers, including Austria, France, Great Britain, Prussia, and Russia. The delegates to the Congress were determined to prevent the rise of another powerful empire like Napoleon’s France. They also wanted to restore the legitimacy of the monarchy and to suppress revolutionary movements.

The Congress of Vienna resulted in a number of important agreements, including the following:

  • The restoration of the Bourbon monarchy in France
  • The creation of the German Confederation
  • The redrawing of the borders of many European countries
  • The establishment of the Concert of Europe, a system of international cooperation designed to maintain peace

The Congress of Vienna was a major turning point in European history. It marked the end of the Napoleonic Wars and the beginning of a new era of peace and stability in Europe. The Congress also laid the foundation for the international order that would prevail for much of the 19th century.

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4Year Degree Course History – UG History Suggestion and Answer



a. Who did belong to “First Estate” in the French Society?
The “First Estate” in French society belonged to the clergy or the Church.
(b) Who was Voltaire?
Voltaire was a French Enlightenment writer, philosopher, and historian known for his wit, criticism of organized religion, and advocacy for freedom of speech.
(c) What is Zollverein?
Zollverein refers to the German Customs Union, a coalition of German states formed to manage customs and economic policies, contributing to economic unity among the German states.
(d) When was the treaty of Tilsit signed?
The Treaty of Tilsit was signed on July 7–9, 1807, between France and Russia after the Battle of Friedland during the Napoleonic Wars.
(e) Who were Physiocrats?
Physiocrats were a group of French economists in the 18th century who believed in the concept of laissez-faire and advocated for natural economic laws to govern society.
(f) Give the name of the place where Napoleon was exiled.
Napoleon was exiled to the island of Elba after his forced abdication in 1814.
(g) Who won the battle of Trafalgar?
A. The Battle of Trafalgar was won by the British under Admiral Horatio Nelson on October 21, 1805, against the combined French and Spanish fleets during the Napoleonic Wars.
(h) Who were Girondists?
The Girondists were a political faction during the French Revolution, representing moderate republicans who initially opposed radical measures.
(i) What do you mean by Spanish ulcer?
The term “Spanish ulcer” refers to the drain on French resources caused by the Peninsular War (1808–1814) fought in the Iberian Peninsula against the Spanish and Portuguese.
(j) What is Kulturkampf?
Kulturkampf was a German term meaning “culture struggle,” and it refers to the conflict between the German government, particularly under Chancellor Otto von Bismarck, and the Catholic Church in the 1870s.
(k) Who was called “the sick man of Europe”?
“The sick man of Europe” was a term used to describe the declining Ottoman Empire in the 19th and early 20th centuries.
(l) Mention the date of fall of Bastille.
The fall of the Bastille occurred on July 14, 1789, marking a key event at the beginning of the French Revolution.

CBCS SYLLABUS OF CU(University of Calcutta), WBSU (WEST BENGAL STATE UNIVERSITY), KU (University of Kalyani), VU( Vidyasagar University), BU( The University of Burdwan), BKU (Bankura University), CBPBU (Cooch Behar Panchanan Barma Univirsity), NBU ( University of North Bengal), KNU ( Kazi Nazrul University), SKBU (Sidho – Kanho- Birsha University) etc. History Notes & History Suggestion

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